Skip to main content

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image

Retention behavior of size and aluminum components on handsheets in rosin-ester size/alum systems


Anionic emulsion sizes consisting of rosin triglyceride esters and partly fortified rosin acids (i.e., rosin-ester sizes), have recently been used as internal sizes for alkaline papermaking. In this study, handsheets were prepared from pulp suspensions with alum and a rosin-ester size under various conditions, and sizing degree and size and aluminum contents of the handsheets were determined. Aluminum compounds originating from alum added to the pulp suspensions behave as retention aids of the rosin-ester size even in alkaline papermaking under limited conditions. Carboxyl groups in pulp are the primary retention sites of aluminum compounds in pulp suspensions. They form cationic sites on pulp fibers, and thus the anionic size emulsion particles are adsorbed on pulp fibers by electrostatic interactions. However, the cationic charges of aluminum compounds on pulp fibers decrease and finally disappear completely with the lapse of time after the alum addition by forming ionic bonds between the cationic sites and OH ions. Thus, pH values of the pulp suspensions and timing of the size addition strongly influence the retention values of the rosin-ester size and the resultant sizing features.


  1. 1.

    Ito K, Isogai A, Onabe F (1996) Mechanism of rosin-ester sizing for alkaline papermaking. In: Proceedings 1996 International Paper Coating Chemistry Symposium, Technical Section of Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, June 11–13, Ottawa, pp 131–134

  2. 2.

    Nakajima M (1997) Recent progress of sizing agents. Jpn Tappi J 51:1151–1160

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ito K, Isogai A, Onabe F (1999) Rosin-ester sizing for alkaline papermaking. J Pupl Paper Sci, (in press)

  4. 4.

    Parks EJ, Hebert RL (1972) Thermal analysis of ion exchange reaction products of wood pulps with calcium and aluminum cation. Tappi J 55:1510–1514

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kitaoka T, Isogai A, Onabe F (1995) Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems. Part 1. Relationships between sizing degrees and rosin size or aluminum content in rosin-sized handsheets. Nordic Pulp Paper Res J 10:253–260

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Kitaoka T, Isogai A, Onabe F (1997) Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems. Part 2. Structures of rosin size components in sheet. Nordic Pulp Paper Res J 12:26–31

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kitaoka T, Isogai A, Onabe F (1997) Sizing mechanism of emulsion rosin size-alum systems. Part 3. Solid-state13C-NMR analysis of handsheets prepared by13C-labeled fatty acid-alum systems. Nordic Pulp Paper Res J 12:182–188

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Strazdins E (1989) Theoretical and practical aspects of alum use in papermaking. Nordic Pulp Paper Res J 4:128–134

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bottero J-Y, Fiessinger F (1989) Aluminum chemistry in aqueous solutions. Nordic Pulp Paper Res J 4:81–89

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Strazdins E (1986) The chemistry of alum in papermaking. Tappi J 69:111–114

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Arnson TR, Stratton RA (1983) The adsorption of complex aluminum species by cellulosic fibers. Tappi J 66(12):72–75

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Cordier DR, Bixler HJ (1987) Measurement of aluminum hydrolysis in the wet end. Tappi J 70(11):99–102

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Odberg L, Barla P, Nordmark G (1995) Transfer of absorbed alum from cellulosic fibers to clay particles. J Pulp Paper Sci 21(7):J250-J254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Kato M, Isogai A, Onabe F (1998) Retention behavior of aluminum compounds on pulp fibers at wet-end. J Wood Sci 44(5):361–368

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Isogai A, Kitaoka C, Onabe F (1997) Effects of carboxyl groups in pulp on retention of alkylketene dimer. J Pulp Paper Sci 23(5):7215–1219

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Yoshizawa J, Isogai A, Onabe F (1998) Analysis and retention behavior of cationic and amphoteric starches on handsheets. J Pulp Paper Sci 24(6):213–218

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Tappi Test Methods (1995) Carboxyl content of pulp. T237 om-93

  18. 18.

    Tappi Test Methods (1995) Forming handsheets for physical test of pulp. T205 om-88

  19. 19.

    JIS Method (1979) Testing method for Stöckigt sizing degree of paper. P 8122

  20. 20.

    Ishida Y, Ohtani H, Kano T, Tsuge S, Yano T (1994) Determination of rosin sizing agents in paper by pyrolysis-gas chromatography combined with on-line methylation. Tappi J 77(3): 177–183

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Kato M (1998) Retention mechanism of aluminum compounds at wet-end of papermaking. Masters thesis, University of Tokyo

Download references

Author information



Additional information

This research was presented in part at the 1995 autumn meetings of the Society of Fiber Science and Technology Japan in Hamamatsu, October 1995

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ito, K., Isogai, A. & Onabe, F. Retention behavior of size and aluminum components on handsheets in rosin-ester size/alum systems. J Wood Sci 45, 46–52 (1999).

Download citation

Key words

  • Rosin-ester size
  • Aluminum sulfate
  • Retention
  • Alkaline sizing
  • Paper