Skip to main content

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image

Characterization of acetylated wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi

Abstract

The objective of this study was to characterize the decay of acetylated wood due to brown-rot and white-rot fungi by analysis of chemical composition, X-ray measurements, and13C-NMR spectroscopy. The decay by brown-rot fungus became inhibited at a weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation of more than 10%, and the mass loss (LOSS) due to decay became zero at a WPG of about 20%. The LOSS due to white-rot fungus decreased slowly with the increase in WPG, reaching zero at a WPG of about 12%. The losses of lignin by brown-rot decay increased initially with the decrease in LOSS owing to the progressing acetylation and then decreased at a LOSS of less than 60%. Polysaccharides were more easily decomposed than lignin during the decay of acetylated wood due to brown-rot fungus. The losses of both components due to white-rot decay decreased as the LOSS decreased with progressing acetylation. The white-rot fungus tended to preferentially decompose the lignin during the decay of acetylated wood. The brown-rot fungus decomposed the cellulose in the crystalline region to a large degree when the LOSS was more than 40%, whereas the white-rot fungus decomposed the crystalline region and the noncrystalline region in acetylated wood to the same degree. The brown-rot fungus preferentially decomposed unsubstituted xylose units in acetylated wood and partly decomposed the mono-substituted xylose units. It was suggested that the mono- and disubstituted cellulose were partly decomposed by brown-rot fungus.

References

  1. l.

    Chen C-L, Chang H-M (1985) Chemistry of lignin biodegradation. In: Higuchi T (ed) Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components. Academic, San Diego, pp 535–556

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kirk TK, Highley TL (1973) Quantitative changes in structural components of conifer wood during decay by white- and brown-rot fungi. Phytopathology 63:1338–1342

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Highley TL (1987) Changes in chemical components of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungi. Material Organismen 22:39–45

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Enoki A, Tanaka H, Fuse G (1988) Degradation of lignin-related compounds, pure cellulose, and wood components by white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Holzforschung 42:85–93

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Zabel RA, Morrell JJ (1992) Chemical changes in wood caused by decay fungi. In: Wood microbiology decay and its prevention. Academic, San Diego, pp 195–224

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Pérez V, de Troya MT, Martfnez AT, González-Vila FJ, Arias E, González AE (1993) In vitro decay of Aextoxicon punctatum and Fagus sylvatica woods by white and brown-rot fungi. Wood Sci Technol 27:295–307

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Martínez AT, González AE, Valmaseda M, Dale BE, Lambregts MJ, Haw JF (1991) Solid-state NMR studies of lignin and plant polysaccharide degradation by fungi. Holzforschung 45:49–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Davis MK, Schroeder HR, Maciel GE (1994) Solid-state13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of wood decay. I. White rot decay of Colorado blue spruce. Holzforschung 48:99–105

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Davis MK, Schroeder HR, Maciel GE (1994) Solid-state13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of wood decay. II. White rot decay of paper birch. Holzforschung 48:186–192

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Davis MK, Schroeder HR, Maciel GE (1994) Solid-state13C nuclear magnetic resonance studies of wood decay. III. Decay of Colorado blue spruce and paper birch byPostia placenta. Holzforschung 48:301–307

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kim YS, Newman RH (1995) Solid state13C NMR study of wood degraded by the brown rot fungusGloeophyllum trabeum. Holzforschung 49:109–114

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Rowell RM (1991) Chemical modification of wood. In: Hon DNS, Shiraishi N (eds) Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 703–756

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Nishimoto K, Imamura Y (1985) Physical and protective properties of particleboards made of mixtures of acetylated and normal chips (in Japanese). Wood Ind 40:414–418

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rowell RM, Esenther GR, Nicholas DD, Nilsson T (1987) Biological resistance of southern pine and aspen flakeboards made from acetylated flakes. J Wood Chem Technol 7:427–440

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Peterson MD, Thomas RJ (1978) Protection of wood from decay fungi by acetylation: an ultrastructural and chemical study. Wood Fiber 10:149–163

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Jayme G, Knolle H (1964) Beitrag zur empirischen röntgeno-graphiseben Bestimmung des Kristallinitätsgrades cellulosehaltiger Stoffe. Papier 18:249–255

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Knolle H, Jayme J (1965) Über ein digitales Verfahren zur empirischen Bestimmung der Röntgenkristallinität cellulosehaltiger Stoffe und seine Anwendung. Papier 19:106–110

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ohkoshi M, Kato A, Hayashi N (1997)13C-NMR analysis of acetyl groups in acetylated wood. I. Acetyl groups in cellulose and hemicellulose. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 43:327–336

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ohkoshi M, Kato A (1997)13C-NMR analysis of acetyl groups in acetylated wood. II. Acetyl groups in lignin. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 43:364–369

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Doyle SE, Pethrick RA (1987) Structure of fibrous cellulose acetate: X-ray diffraction, positron annihilation and electron microscopy investigations. J Appl Polym Sci 33:95–106

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Makoto Ohkoshi.

Additional information

This paper was presented at the 46th and 47th annual meetings of the Japan Wood Research Society at Kumamoto and Kochi in April 1996 and April 1997, respectively

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ohkoshi, M., Kato, A., Suzuki, K. et al. Characterization of acetylated wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi. J Wood Sci 45, 69–75 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00579526

Download citation

Key words

  • Acetylated wood
  • Brown-rot and white-rot decay
  • Chemical composition Crystallinity
  • Acetyl distribution