Skip to main content

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Surface analysis of paper containing polymer additives by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy I: Application to paper containing dry strength additives

Abstract

The surfaces of handsheets containing polydiallyl-dimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM) were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The observed N1s chemical shifts were compared with those of the strength additives. Chemical covalences on paper surfaces due to a small amount of polymer additives were clarified and determined by an XPS curve-fitting technique. Some of the problems associated with surface analysis of paper by XPS are discussed. The effects of strength additives on the fiber surface or between fibers are illustrated. This technique appears promising as a tool to analyze paper surfaces treated with small amounts of polymer additives.

References

  1. Britt KW (1981) Wet strength. In: Casey JP (ed) Pulp and paper chemical technology, 3rd edn. Wiley Interscience. New York, pp 1609–1624

    Google Scholar 

  2. Dunlop-Jones N (1991) Wet-strength chemistry. In: Roberts JC (ed) Paper chemistry. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 76–97

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Eklund D, Lindström T (1991) Wet strength. In: Paper chemistry, an introduction. DT Paper Science, Grankulla, Finland, pp 89–104

    Google Scholar 

  4. Keavney JJ, Kulick RJ (1981) Internal sizing. In: Casey JP (ed) Pulp and paper Chemical Technology, 3rd edn. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 1547–1580

    Google Scholar 

  5. Gess JM (1991) The sizing of paper with rosin and alum at acid pHs. In: Roberts JC (ed) Paper chemistry. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 97–113

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  6. Roberts JC (1991) Neutral and alkaline sizing. In: Roberts JC (ed) Paper chemistry. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 114–131

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Eklund D, Lindström T (1991) Water penetration and internal sizing. In: Paper chemistry, an introduction. DT Paper Science, Grankulla, Finland, pp 192–222

    Google Scholar 

  8. Dwight DW, Riggs WM (1974) Fluoropolymer surface studies. J Colloid Interface Sci 47:650–660

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Courval GJ, Gray DG, Goring DAI (1976) Chemical modification of polyethylene surfaces in a nitrogen corona. J Polym Sci Chem 14:231–235

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Clark DT, Peeling J, O'Malley JM (1976) Application of ESCA to polymer chemistry. XIII. Surface structures of AB block copolymers of polydimethylsiloxane and polystyrene. J Polym Sci Chem 14:543–551

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Zhang X, Kang ET, Neoh KG, Tan KL, Kim DY, Kim CY (1996) Surface studies of pristine and surface-modified polypyrrole films. J Appl Polym Sci 60:625–636

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Soignet DM, Berni RJ, Benerito RR (1976) Electron spectroscopy for chemical analyses (ESCA)—a tool for studying treated textiles. J Appl Polym Sci 20:2483–2495

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Millard MM, Pavlath AE (1972) Surface analysis of wool fibers and fiber coatings by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Text Res J 42:460–463

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Dorris GM, Gray DG (1978) The surface analysis of paper and wood fibres by ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis). I. Application to cellulose and lignin. Cell Chem Technol 12:923

    Google Scholar 

  15. Dorris GM, Gray DG (1978) The surface analysis of paper and wood fibres by ESCA. II. Surface composition of mechanical pulps. Cell Chem Technol 12:721–734

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ahmed A, Adnot A, Kaliaguine S (1987) ESCA study of the solid residues of supercritical extraction ofPopulus tremuloïdes in methanol. J Appl Polym Sci 34:359–375

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ahmed A, Adnot A, Kaliaguine S (1988) ESCA analysis of partially converted lignocellulosic materials. J Appl Polym Sci 35:1909–1919

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Ahmed A, Adnot A, Grandmaison JL, Kaliaguine S, Doucet J (1987) ESCA analysis of cellulosic materials. Cell Chem Technol 21:483–492

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Barry AO, Koran Z, Kaliaguine S (1990) Surface analysis by ESCA of sulfite post-treated CTMP. J Appl Polym Sci 39:31–42

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kamdem DP, Riedl B, Adnot A, Kaliaguine S (1991) ESCA spectroscopy of poly (methylmethacrylate) grafted onto wood fibers. J Appl Polym Sci 43:1901–1912

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Ohno N, Sawatari A, Yoshimoto I (1992) Studies on distribution of extractives in pulp fibres by means of ESCA (in Japanese). Jpn Tappi 46:1295–1312

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hua X, Kaliaguine S, Kokta BV, Adnot A (1993) Surface analysis of explosion pulps by ESCA. Part 2. Oxygen (1s) and sulfur (2p) spectra. Wood Sci Technol 28:1–8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Ben Y, Kokta BV, Doucet J, Kaliaguine S (1993) Effect of chemical pretreatment on chemical characteristics of steam explosion pulps of aspen. J Wood Chem Technol 13:349–369

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lame J, Stenius P (1994) Surface characterization of unbleached kraft pulps by means of ESCA. Cellulose 1:145–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Koubaa A, Riedl B, Koran Z (1996) Surface analysis of press dried-CTMP paper samples by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. J Appl Polym Sci 61:545–552

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Beamson G, Briggs D (1992) High resolution XPS of organic polymers, the Scienta ESCA 300 database. Wiley, New York, pp 208, 110, 188

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hiroo Tanaka.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chen, S., Tanaka, H. Surface analysis of paper containing polymer additives by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy I: Application to paper containing dry strength additives. J Wood Sci 44, 303–309 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00581311

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00581311

Key words

  • XPS
  • Paper strength additive
  • Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride
  • Anionic polyacrylamide