Skip to main content


Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image
We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Combination treatment of kenaf bast fiber for high viscosity pulp


The viscosity of kenaf bast fiber has been found to be highly sensitive and variable with different pulping methods; therefore, it is important to choose proper chemicals and conditions for pulping and bleaching of kenaf bast fiber. From several pulping experiments, a nonconventional pulping method with a combination of ammonium oxalate pretreatment followed by soda pulping at normal pressure and then acidic chlorite delignification was developed to obtain high-viscosity pulp (162 centipoise). The optimum level of alkali dosage of soda pulping for high-viscosity pulp was found to be 15% (on pulp as NaOH). Pulps showed linear relations between viscosity and xylose or glucose contents, but the combination pulping method gave extremely high pulp viscosity, beyond the relations. The highest viscosity pulp from kenaf bast fiber demonstrated a tear index about twofold and a folding endurance 6.2-fold higher than those of Manila hemp pulp with comparable tensile and burst indexes. The high-viscosity pulp could be used in the production of high-quality currency paper or longevity paper for special uses.


  1. 1.

    Chark TF, Nelson GH, Nieschlag HJ, Wolff IA (1962) A search for new fiber crops. V. Pulping studies on kenaf. TAPPI 45:780–786

  2. 2.

    Bagby MO, Clark T (1975) Kenaf pulp-soda vs. sulfate. TAPPI J 58(7):121–123

  3. 3.

    Mazumder BB, Ohtani Y, Sameshima K (1998) Normal pressure pulping of jute, kenaf and mesta bast fiber. Sen'i Gakkaishi 54:654–660

  4. 4.

    Nezamoleslami A, Suzuki K, Nishida T, Ueno T (1998) Biobleaching of kenaf bast fiber, soda-AQ pulp using white-rot fungus. TAPPI J 81(6):179–183

  5. 5.

    Kubes GJ, MacLeod JM, Fleming BI, Bolker HI (1981) The viscosities of unbleached alkaline pulps. Wood Chem Technol 1(1):1–10

  6. 6.

    Ohtani Y, Noguchi T, Sameshima K (1996) Influence of anthraquinone addition method on alkaline pulping of kenaf bast. Sen'i Gakkishi 52:175–179

  7. 7.

    Sameshima K, Kondo T (1970) Studies on pulp bleaching (VII). Kamipa Gikyoushi 24(1):17–25

  8. 8.

    Allison RW, Ellis MJ, Wrathall SH (1998) Interaction of mechanical and chemical treatments on pulp strength during kraft pulp bleaching. Appita J 51:107–113

  9. 9.

    Ni Y, Ooi T (1996) Laboratory study on bleaching softwood kraft pulp by totally chlorinefree process including the novel ozone bleaching. TAPPI J 79(10):167–172

  10. 10.

    TAPPI Test method T259 om-93. TAPPI press, Atlanta, GA

  11. 11.

    Zhou C, Zhengguo L, Sameshima K, Othani Y, Zhen M (1995) On the fiber length and its distribution in kenaf. Acta Agric Zhejiangensis 7:293–296

  12. 12.

    Calmari TA, Tao W, Goynes WR (1997) A preliminary study of kenaf fiber bundles and their composition cells. TAPPI J 80(8):149–154

  13. 13.

    Okano T (ed) (1989) In: Experimental text book (vol 1) (in Japanese). Japanese Wood Research Society, Tokyo, p 58

  14. 14.

    Usuda M (ed) (1985) In: Experimental textbook [Mokuzai Kagaku Jikkensho], (vol 1). Japanese Wood Research Society, Tokyo, pp 148, 155, 160, 187–191

  15. 15.

    Japan TAPPI test method No.44-84, TAPPI Test Method T230 om-89

  16. 16.

    Negri AR, Jimenez GJ, Hill RT, Francis RC (1998) Caroate delignification. Part 4. The generation and role of hydroxyl radicals. TAPPI J 81:241–246

  17. 17.

    Scandinavian Pulp, Paper and Board Testing Method, no. Scan-C 1:77

  18. 18.

    Japan Industrial Standard Method (JIS), no. P-8121, P-8112, P-8115, and P-8116

  19. 19.

    Fletcher DE, Johansson NG, Basta JJ, Holm AS, Wackerberg E (1997) TCF bleaching of sulfite pulps — new aspects. TAPPI J 80(12):143–147

  20. 20.

    Gurnagul N, Page DH, Paice MG (1992) The effect of cellulose degradation on the strength of wood pulp fibers. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 7(3):152–154

  21. 21.

    Kroschwitz JI (ed) (1990) In: Polymers, fibers and textiles, a compendium. Wiley-Interscience, New York, p 237

  22. 22.

    Jackson LS, John AHJR, Thomas WJ (1998) Production of dissolving pulp from recovered paper using enzymes. TAPPI J 81(3):171–178

  23. 23.

    Genco JM, Busayasakul N, Medhora HK, Robbins W (1990) Hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping. TAPPI J 73(4):223–233

  24. 24.

    Cao B, Tschirner U, Ramaswamy S (1998) Impact of pulp chemical composition on recycling. TAPPI J 81(12):119–127

  25. 25.

    Peralta AG (1996) Pulp produced from decorticated abaca fiber. TAPPI J 79(3):263–266

  26. 26.

    Jameel H, Zhan H, Chang H, Hoekstra PM, Amini B (1995) Option for metals removal to improve peroxide bleaching. Presented at the TAPPI Pulping Conference, Chicago, pp 887–895

  27. 27.

    Nezamoleslami A, Suzuki K, Kadoya T (1997) Preparation and properties of retted kenaf bast fiber pulp and evaluation as substitute for Manila hemp pulp. J Pack Sci Technol 6:339–347

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kazuhiko Sameshima.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mazumder, B.B., Ohtani, Y., Cheng, Z. et al. Combination treatment of kenaf bast fiber for high viscosity pulp. J Wood Sci 46, 364–370 (2000).

Download citation

Key words

  • Kenaf bast fiber
  • Ammonium oxalate
  • Pulp viscosity
  • Tear index
  • Folding endurance