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Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Influence of loading point on the static bending test of wood


We conducted three-point bending tests by changing the condition at the loading point and then examined the influence of the loading point on the test data. Yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipfera L.) was used for the tests. First, using loading noses with various radii, static bending tests were conducted by varying the depth/span ratios. Deflections were measured from the displacement of the cross head and at the point against the loading nose: Young's and shear moduli were obtained from the modified Timoshenko's bending equation proposed in a previous paper. Then a similar testing procedure was undertaken by inserting cushion sheets of Teflon between the specimen and the nose. After the measuring these moduli, bending strengths were measured using the loading noses and cushion sheets. The following results were obtained: (1) When the deflection was measured from the displacement of the cross head, the radius of the loading nose had an influence on the additional deflection when the depth/span ratio was high, causing the dependence of the shear modulus on the radius. In contrast, the radius had little influence on the measurement of Young's modulus. By placing cushion sheets between the nose and the specimen, the effect of the radius was moderated. When the deflection was measured at the point against the loading nose, the radius of the nose had little influence on the additional deflection; hence the loading nose had little influence when obtaining Young's and shear moduli. This tendency was commonly observed regardless of whether the cushion sheets were in place. (2) When the specimen had a high depth/span ratio, the bending strength increased with the increase in the radius of the loading nose. However, the influence of the radius was small when the specimen had a low depth/span ratio. There was no significant effect of the cushion sheets used here on the measurement of bending strength.


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Correspondence to Hiroshi Yoshihara.

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Yoshihara, H., Fukuda, A. Influence of loading point on the static bending test of wood. J Wood Sci 44, 473–481 (1998).

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Key words

  • Bending test
  • Loading nose
  • Cushion material
  • Elastic modulus
  • Bending strength