Skip to main content

Advertisement

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image
We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Chemical characteristics of surfaces of hardwood and softwood deteriorated by weathering

Abstract

The factors that cause weather-induced deterioration of wood surfaces were determined by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Albizzia (Paraserianthes falcata Becker.) and sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were exposed to two temperate conditions of natural weathering with and without rainfall and to accelerated conditions of artificial weathering coupled with ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and water flashing. Infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the oxidative reaction of lignin was observed under all conditions of weathering for both wood species. However, a marked decrease in lignin and hemicellulose content were recognized when albizzia woods were exposed to weathering with water. Lignin content in the softwood sugi did not decrease as much as in albizzia even in the presence of water, but the modification of lignin macromolecules was assumed to be accelerated by water, as seen by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These results showed that the presence of water promotes the weathering deterioration of wood under UV irradiation.

References

  1. 1.

    Hon DNS (1991) Photochemistry of wood. In: Hon DN-S, Shiraishi N (eds) Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Decker, New York, pp 525–555

  2. 2.

    Evans PD, Michell AJ, Schmalzl KJ (1992) Studies of the degradation and protection of wood surface. Wood Sci Technol 26:151–163

  3. 3.

    Hon DNS, Minemura N (1991) Color and discoloration. In: Hon DNS, Shiraishi N (ed) Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Decker, New York, pp 525–555

  4. 4.

    Iiyama K, Wallis AFA (1988) An improved acetyl bromide procedure for determinating lignin in woods and wood pulps. Wood Sci Technol. 22:271–280

  5. 5.

    Saeman JF, Moore WE, Mitchell RL, Millett MA (1954) Techniques for the determination of pulp constituents by quantitative paper chromatography. Tappi 37:336–343

  6. 6.

    Borchardt LG, Piper CV (1970) A gas chromatographic method for carbohydrates as alditol-acetates. Tappi 53:257–260

  7. 7.

    Yata S, Tamura T (1995) Histological changes of softwood surfaces during outdoor weathering. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 41:1035–1042

  8. 8.

    Feist WC, Rowell RM, Ellis WD (1991) Moisture sorption and accelerated weathering of acetylated methacrylated aspen. Wood Fiber. Sci 23:128–136

  9. 9.

    Hon DNS (1975) Formation of free radicals in photoirradiated cellulose. VI. Effect of lignin. J Polym Sci Poly Chem Educ 13:2641–2652

  10. 10.

    Hon DNS, Chang ST (1984) Surface degradation of wood by ultraviolet light. J Polym. Sci Polym Chem Educ. 22:2227–2241

  11. 11.

    Kerr AJ, Goring DAI (1975) The ultrastructural arrangement of the wood cell wall. Cellulose Chem Technol 9:563–573

  12. 12.

    Hon DNS, Feist WC (1986) Weathering characteristics of hard wood surfaces. Wood Sci Technol 20:169–183

  13. 13.

    Pearl IA (1958) Studies on lignin and related products. XIV. Spectral and chromatographic data on lignin model compounds in the phenylpropane series. J Org Chem. 24:736–740

  14. 14.

    Harrington KJ, Higgins HG, Michell AJ (1964) Infrared spectra ofEucalyptus regnans F. Muell andPinus radiata D. Don. Holzforschung 18:108–113

  15. 15.

    Sarkanen K, Chang HM, Ericsson B (1967) Species variation in lignins. I. Infrared spectra of guaiacyl and syringyl models. Tappi 50:572–575

  16. 16.

    Faix O (1992) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In: Lin SY, Dence CW (eds) Methods in lignin chemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 83–109

  17. 17.

    Steelink C, Reid, T, Tollin G (1963) On the nature of the freeradical moiety in lignin. J Am Chem Soc 85:4048–4049

  18. 18.

    Hon DNS, Feist WC (1981) Free radical formation in wood: the role of water. Wood Sci 14:41–48

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yanni Sudiyani.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sudiyani, Y., Tsujiyama, S., Imamura, Y. et al. Chemical characteristics of surfaces of hardwood and softwood deteriorated by weathering. J Wood Sci 45, 348–353 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00833502

Download citation

Key words

  • Chemical analysis
  • Cryptomeria japonica
  • ESR analysis
  • IR spectroscopy
  • Paraserianthes falcata
  • Weathering