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Investigation of change in tangential strain on the inner bark of the stem and root ofBetula platyphylla var.japonica andAcer mono during sap season

Abstract

Although it is well known that sap exudation during early spring in temperate deciduous trees occurs in response to daytime warming and nighttime cooling, the mechanisms of the process are not yet fully understood. Previous theories suggested that changes in stress in the wood caused by daytime heating and nighttime cooling might be linked with sap flow. Consequently, a study of itaya-kaede maple (Aver mono) and shirakamba birch (Betula platyphylla var.japonica) looked at tangential strains. One-hour intervals for 3 years of the tangential strains on the inner bark of stem and root were measured in itaya-kaede maple and shirakamba birch during the sap exudation season. The measurements indicated different mechanisms of sap exudation in these two trees. During the sap exudation season in late March, when the temperature fluctuated around 0°C, the tangential strain in the root of itaya-kaede maple showed expansion in the daytime and contraction at night. Conversely, in early April the tangential strain in the root of shirakamba birch exhibited contraction in the daytime and expansion at night. The changes in tangential strains in itaya-kaede maple were attributed to conditioning, a known concept used to explain the uptake mechanism of soil water in maple and its exudation during early spring. However, because the change in tangential strain in the roots of shirakamba birch was similar to that found during the rampant season, sap exudation was not attributed to conditioning but to the plentiful supply of water from the roots. The implications of these mechanisms are that different sap harvesting techniques may be appropriate for different tree species.

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Correspondence to Masato Yoshida.

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Yoshida, M., Yamamoto, O., Okuyama, T. et al. Investigation of change in tangential strain on the inner bark of the stem and root ofBetula platyphylla var.japonica andAcer mono during sap season. J Wood Sci 45, 361–367 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01177906

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Key words

  • Acer mono
  • Betula platyphylla var.japonica Inner bark
  • Sap exudation
  • Tangential strain