Skip to main content

Advertisement

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image
We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Effects of moisture content and specific gravity on static bending properties and hardness of six wood species

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the effects of moisture content (MC) and specific gravity (SG) on the bending strength and hardness of six wood species including Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), red meranti (Shorea spp.), Selangan batu (Shorea spp.), and red oak (Quercus spp.). The experimental results are summarized as follows: Effects of MC and SG on the strength (MOR), stiffness (MOE), and hardness (H B) could be represented by a multiregression formulas. A negative correlation existed between these properties and MC, whereas a postive correlation showed between them and the SG. The changing rate of these properties induced by 1% MC changes varied with the wood species: 2.6% change in MOR was observed in Japanese cedar, China fir, western hemlock, red meranti, and Selangan batu; and 3.9% was found in red oak. For MOE, a 0.58% change was observed in Japanese cedar, China fir, and red meranti; western hemlock and Selangan batu exhibited 1.2% and red oak 2.5%. For hardness, a 1.1% change was observed in Japanese cedar, western hemlock, and red oak; red meranti and China fir exhibited 3.3%; and Selangan batu 1.8%.

References

  1. 1.

    Wood Handbook 72 (1987) Wood as an engineering material. Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, USDA, P4-36-39

  2. 2.

    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (1982) Wood Industry Handbook revised 3rd edn, Maruzan Published KK, P1056

  3. 3.

    Chinese National Standard CNS454 (1981) Method of test for static bending of wood. National Standard Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

  4. 4.

    Chinese National Standard CNS460 (1981) Method test for hardness of wood. National Standard Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

  5. 5.

    Avramidis S (1989) Evaluation of “three-variable” models for the prediction of the equilibrium moisture content in wood. Wood Sci Technol 23:251–258

  6. 6.

    Simpson WT (1971) Equilibrium moisture content prediction for wood. For Prod J 21(5):48–49

  7. 7.

    Simpson WT (1973) Predicting equilibrium moisture content of wood by mathematical models. USDA FPL, Madison, WI

  8. 8.

    Wang SY (1989) Studies on the fundamental properties of the economical tree species in Taiwan (IV). Q J Chin For 22(1):3–22

  9. 9.

    Wang SY, Cho CL (1993) Equilibrium moisture contents of six wood species and their influences. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39:126–137

  10. 10.

    Hwang CE (1986), Multivarable analysis. Chinese Economic Enterprise Institute, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

  11. 11.

    Lin CR, Shih NY, Wang SY (1992) Studies on the lumber grades and bending properties of Japanese cedar and China-fir plantation trees. Q J Exp For NTU 6(1):71–101

  12. 12.

    Schneider MH, Sebastian LP (1991) Bending strength and stiffness of Caribbean pine from Trinidad and Tobago. Wood Fiber Sci 23:468–471

  13. 13.

    Wang SY, Tserng WH (1993) Variation in compression parallel-to grain and bending strength of China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) grown in Taiwan. Q J Exp For NTU 7(1):65–77

  14. 14.

    Wang YR, Chen BJ (1990) Study on the in-grade variance of dimension lumber strength distribution. For Prod Ind 9(2):97–109.

  15. 15.

    Wang SY, Chin CM (1993) Wood properties of Japanese cedar originated by seed and vegetative reproduction in Taiwan. VI. Compression and bending properties. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39:1128–1139.

  16. 16.

    Wang SY, Lin SH (1996) Effects of plantation spacings on the quality of visually graded lumber and mechanical properties of Taiwan-grown Japanese cedar. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 42:435–444

  17. 17.

    Duncan DB (1995) Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1–42

  18. 18.

    Barett JD, Lau W (1991) Bending strength adjustments for moisture content for structural lumber. Wood Sci Technol 25:433–447

  19. 19.

    Green DW, Link CL, Debonis AL, Mclain TE (1986) Predicting the effect of moisture content on flexural properties of Southern pine dimension lumber. Wood Fiber Sci 18(1):134–156

  20. 20.

    Green DW, Erans JW, Barrett JD, Aplin EN (1987) Predicting the effect of moisture on the flexural properties of Douglas-fir dimension lumber. Wood Fiber Sci 20(1):107–131

  21. 21.

    Oda K, Tsutsumi J, Matsumura J (1994) Effects of moisture contents on mechanical properties of several softwood. II. Effects on compressive strength and annual ring structure. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40(2):113–118

  22. 22.

    Gerhard CC (1975) Stress wave and MOE of sweetgum ranging from 150 to 15 percent MC. For Prod J 25(4):51–57

  23. 23.

    Ross RJ, Pellerin RF (1991) NDE of green material with stress waves; preliminary results using dimension lumber. For Prod J 41(6):57–59

  24. 24.

    Atherton GH (1980) Preliminary study of proportional limit as predictor of ultimate strength in bending. For Prod J 30(11):47–53

  25. 25.

    Faust TD, McAlister RH, Zarnoch SJ (1990) Strength and stiffness properties of sweetgum and yellow-popular structural lumber. For Prod J 40(10):58–64

  26. 26.

    Tanaka T (1988) Evaluation of strength by non-destructive test: application for sugi wood attacked by borer-insect. Wood Ind (Mokuzai Kogyo) 43(2):20–25

  27. 27.

    Wang SY, Ko CY (1998) The dynamic modulus of elasticity and bending properties of large beam of Japanese cedar for Taiwan-grown in different plantation spacing sites. J Wood Sci 44:62–68

  28. 28.

    Zhou H, Smith I (1991) Factors influencing bending properties of white spruce lumber. Wood Fiber Sci 23(4):483–500

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Song-Yung Wang.

Additional information

A part of this report was presented at the 48th annual meeting of the Japan Wood Research Society in Shizuoka, Japan, April 3-5, 1998

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wang, S., Wang, H. Effects of moisture content and specific gravity on static bending properties and hardness of six wood species. J Wood Sci 45, 127–133 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01192329

Download citation

Key words

  • Moisture content
  • Specific gravity
  • Strength
  • Stiffness
  • Hardness