Skip to main content


Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image

Elastic moduli and stiffness optimization in four-point bending of wood-based sandwich panel for use as structural insulated walls and floors

Article metrics

  • 745 Accesses

  • 13 Citations


Several wood-based sandwich panels with low-density fiberboard core were developed for structural insulated walls and floors, with different face material, panel thickness, and core density. The elastic moduli with and without shear effect (E L, E 0) and shear modulus (Gb) were evaluated in four-point bending. Generally, the stiffer face, thicker panel, and higher core density were advantageous in flexural and shear rigidity for structural use, but the weight control was critical for insulation. Therefore, optimum designs of some virtual sandwich structures were analyzed for bending stiffness in relation to weight for fixed core densities, considering the manufactured-panel designs. As a result, the plywood-faced sandwich panel with a panel thickness of 95 mm (PSW-T100), with insulation performance that had been previously confirmed, was most advantageous at a panel density of 430 kg/m3, showing the highest flexural rigidity (E L I = 13 × 10−6 GNm2) among these panels, where E L, E 0, and G b were 3.5, 5.5, and 0.038 GN/m2, respectively. The panel was found to be closest to the optimum design, which meant that its core and face thickness were optimum for stiffness with minimum density. The panel also provided enough internal bond strength and an excellent dimensional stability. The panel was the most feasible for structural insulation use with the weight-saving structure.


  1. 1.

    Kawasaki T, Zhang M, Kawai S (1998) Manufacture and properties of ultra-low density fiberboard. J Wood Sci 44:354–360

  2. 2.

    Structural Board Association (2000) OSB performance by design — OSB in wood frame construction (Canadian edition). Structural Board Association, Ontario

  3. 3.

    Gibson LJ, Ashby MF (1997) The design of sandwich panels with foam cores. In: Clarke DR, Suresh S, Ward FRSIM (eds) Cellular solids. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 345–386

  4. 4.

    Wang Q, Sasaki H, Yang P, Kawai S (1992) Utilization of laminated-veneer-lumber from Sabah plantation thinnings as beam flanges. III. Production of composite beam and its properties. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38:914–922

  5. 5.

    Zhang M, Kawasaki T, Yang P, Honda T, Kawai S (1996) Manufacture and properties of composite fiberboard III. Properties of three-layered bamboo-wood composite boards and stress analysis by the Finite Element Method. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 42:854–861

  6. 6.

    Kawasaki T, Zhang M, Kawai S (1999) Sandwich panel of veneer-overlaid low-density fiberboard. J Wood Sci 45:291–298

  7. 7.

    Kawasaki T, Kwang H, Komatsu K, Kawai S (2003) In-plane shear properties of the wood-based sandwich panels as a small shear wall, evaluated by the shear test method using tie-rods. J Wood Sci 49:199–209

  8. 8.

    Kawasaki T, Kawai S (2006) Thermal insulation properties of wood-based sandwich panel for use as structural insulated walls ans floors. J Wood Sci 52:75–83

  9. 9.

    Allen HG (1969) Analysis and design of structural sandwich panels. Pergamon, Oxford

  10. 10.

    Arima T, Okuma M (1970) Studies on compound used injected and foamed polyurethane resin as core. I (in Japanese). Mokuzai Kogyo 25:267–268

  11. 11.

    Okuma M, Arima T (1970) Studies on compound used injected and foamed polyurethane resin as core. II (in Japanese). Mokuzai Kogyo 25:418–420

  12. 12.

    Vinson JR (1999) The behavior of sandwich structures of isotropic and composite materials. Technomic, Pennsylvania

  13. 13.

    Carlson LA, Nordstrand T, Westerlind B (2001) On the elastic stiffness of corrugated core sandwich. J Sandw Struct Mater 3:253–267

  14. 14.

    Whitney JM (2001) A local model for bending of weak core sandwich plates. J Sandw Struct Mater 3:269–288

  15. 15.

    Swanson SR, Kim J (2002) Optimization of sandwich beams for concentrated loads. J Sandw Struct Mater 4:273–293

  16. 16.

    Gupta N, Woldesenbet E, Kishore, Sankaran S (2002) Response of syntactic foam core sandwich structured composites to three-point bending. J Sandw Struct Mater 4:249–272

  17. 17.

    JAS (2000) JAS for structural plywood, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo

  18. 18.

    Sasaki H (1991) Development of continuous press with steam-injection heating from both sides. Report for the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 01860023) from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan

  19. 19.

    JIS (1994) JIS A 1414 Methods of performance test of panels for building construction. Japanese Standard Association, Tokyo

  20. 20.

    JIS (2003) JIS A 5905 Fiberboards. Japanese Standard Association, Tokyo

  21. 21.

    JIS (2003) JIS A 5908 Particleboards. Japanese Standard Association, Tokyo

  22. 22.

    JAS (2003) JAS for structural panel. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, Tokyo

  23. 23.

    Triantafillou TC, Gibson LJ (1987) Failure mode maps for foam core sandwich beams. Mat Sci Eng 95:37–53

  24. 24.

    Triantafillou TC, Gibson LJ (1987) Minimum weight design of foam core sandwich panels for a given strength. Mat Sci Eng 95:55–62

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Tamami Kawasaki.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kawasaki, T., Zhang, M., Wang, Q. et al. Elastic moduli and stiffness optimization in four-point bending of wood-based sandwich panel for use as structural insulated walls and floors. J Wood Sci 52, 302–310 (2006) doi:10.1007/s10086-005-0766-z

Download citation

Key words

  • Bending property
  • Wood-based sandwich panel
  • Low-density fiberboard
  • Structural insulation wall/floor
  • Optimum design analysis