Skip to main content

Advertisement

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image

Characterizing the setting of cement when mixed with cork, blue gum, or maritime pine, grown in Portugal I: temperature profiles and compatibility indices

Article metrics

  • 108 Accesses

  • 13 Citations

Abstract

Data are presented on the effects that cork, blue gum, or maritime pine, all grown in Portugal, have on cement setting. These materials were mixed with cement either without any treatment or after being extracted previously with a range of solvents (ranging from nonpolar to very polar). Other experiments were carried out in which extractives or calcium chloride were added to the cement paste. All lignocellulosic substrates have detrimental effects on cement setting, which is mostly seen by a delay in attaining the maximum temperature in the process. However, the addition of calcium chloride was able to overcome this disadvantage. Extraction of the substrates with some polar extraction agents before addition to the cement paste only slightly improved compatibility, and the addition of water-based extractives to a cement paste affects the setting much less than the lignocellulosic material by itself. Several thermal compatibility indices, including a new index proposed in this article, were calculated from data taken from temperature profiles, and conclusions are presented on the performance of the setting systems, as compared with a neat cement paste. In addition, comments are expressed on the level of accuracy offered by the indices applied in this study, and how such accuracy can be checked or improved by matching them to the physical properties of the wood-cement composites.

References

  1. 1.

    Rashwan MS, Hatzinikolas M, Zmavc R (1992) Development of a lightweight, low-cost concrete block using wood residue. Forest Prod J 42:57–64

  2. 2.

    Ramirez-Coretti A, Eckelman CA, Wolfe RW (1998) Inorganic-bonded composite wood panel systems for low-cost housing: a Central American perspective. Forest Prod J 48:62–68

  3. 3.

    Hermawan D, Subiyanto B, Kawai S (2001) Manufacture and properties of oil palm frond cement-bonded board. J Wood Sci 47:208–213

  4. 4.

    Goodell B, Daniel G, Liu J, Mott L, Frank R (1997) Decay resistance and microscopic analysis of wood-cement composites. Forest Prod J 47:75–80

  5. 5.

    Wolfe RW, Gjinolli A (1999) Durability and strength of cement-bonded wood particle composites made from construction waste. Forest Prod J 49:24–31

  6. 6.

    Schmidt R, Marsh R, Balatinecz JJ, Cooper PA (1994) Increased wood-cement compatibility of chromated-treated wood. Forest Prod J 44:44–46

  7. 7.

    Hachmi M, Moslemi AA (1989) Correlation between wood-cement compatibility and wood extractives. Forest Prod J 39:55–58

  8. 8.

    Zhengtian L, Moslemi AA (1986) Effect of western larch extractives on cement setting. Forest Prod J 36:53–54

  9. 9.

    Moslemi AA, Lim YT (1984) Compatibility of southern hard-woods with Portland cement. Forest Prod J 34:22–26

  10. 10.

    Sandermann W, Kohler R (1964) Studies on mineral-bonded wood materials. IV. A short test of the aptitudes of woods for cement-bonded materials. Holzforschung 18:53–59

  11. 11.

    Hofstrand AD, Moslemi AA, Garcia JF (1984) Curing characteristics of wood particles from nine northern Rocky Mountain species mixed with Portland cement. Forest Prod J 34:57–61

  12. 12.

    Weatherwax RC, Tarkow H (1964) Effect of wood on setting of Portland cement. Forest Prod J 14:567–570

  13. 13.

    Hachmi M, Moslemi AA, Campbell AG (1990) A new technique to classify the compatibility of wood with cement. Wood Sci Technol 24:345–354

  14. 14.

    Karade S, Irle RB, Maher K (2003) Assessment of wood-cement compatibility: a new approach. Holzforschung 57:672–680

  15. 15.

    Semple KE, Cunningham RB, Evans PD (1999) Cement hydration tests using wood flour may not predict the suitability of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita for the manufacture of wood-wool cement boards. Holzforschung 53:327–332

  16. 16.

    Lee AWC, Hong Z (1986) Compressive strength of cylindrical samples as an indicator of wood-cement compatibility. Forest Prod J 36:87–90

  17. 17.

    Wei YM, Zhou YG, Tomita B (2000) Hydration behavior of wood cement-based composite I: evaluation of wood species effects on compatibility and strength with ordinary Portland cement. J Wood Sci 46:296–302

  18. 18.

    Pereira C, Caldeira Jorge F, Irle MA, Ferreira JM (2003) Extractive contents of two woods and cork of Portuguese origin and the interaction of these substrates with cement suspensions. Forest Prod J 53:39–43

  19. 19.

    Pereira C, Caldeira Jorge F, Irle MA, Ferreira JM (2002) The interaction of calcium and other cations with lignocellulosic substrates, and their influence on cement setting. Proceedings of the 6th European Panel Products Symposium, Llandudno, North Wales, UK, 9–11 October 2002

  20. 20.

    Coutinho AS (1997) Manufacture and properties of concrete (in Portuguese). Vol. I. National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Lisbon

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Fernando Caldeira Jorge.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Key words

  • Wood
  • Cork
  • Cement
  • Temperature profiles
  • Compatibility indices