Skip to main content

Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Relationship between wettability and sizing degree of paper containing bulking agent

Abstract

The addition of a bulking agent achieves the bulking of paper and increases the pore volume. In this study, the effect of adding bulking agents with various alkyl chain lengths (C14, C18, and C22) on the bulk of paper, the sizing performance, and sheet wettability was evaluated. The bulking effect of a bulking agent with a short alkyl chain length (C14) was large, and reduction in the sheet tensile strength was confirmed to be suppressed. Good sheet sizing performance was achieved when a bulking agent was used with an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD). When 0.1% or more of AKD was added, using a bulking agent with a shorter alkyl chain length increased the improvement in the sizing degree. Pyrolysis gas chromatography measurements of the amount of reacted AKD revealed that the addition of a bulking agent increased the AKD content of the sheet. The sheet contact angle measured by the two-liquid method tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain length. However, the sheet contact angle was not directly correlated with the Stöckigt sizing degree. By using 1% ferric chloride (FeCl3) and 2% ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) aqueous solution, which are used for measuring the Stöckigt sizing degree, the time-dependent change in the contact angle on the paper sheet surface was measured to evaluate wettability. The Stöckigt sizing degree of paper sheets was found to be greatly influenced by the sheet wettability by NH4SCN solution. In the case of 2% NH4SCN aqueous solution, different samples exhibited large wettability differences. When 0.2% or less of AKD was added, the effect of the concentration on the contact angle was confirmed to be large at all NH4SCN concentrations.

References

  1. Robinson JV (1980) Fiber bonding. In: Casey JP (ed) Pulp and paper chemistry and chemical technology, vol 2. Wiley, New York, pp 915–963

    Google Scholar 

  2. Asakura K, Isogai A (2003) Effects of internal addition of fatty acid diamide salts on sheet properties. Nordic Pulp Pap Res J 18:188–193

    Google Scholar 

  3. Noda T, Enomae T, Isogai A, Okuda T (2005) The effects of di(oleamidoethyl)ammonium salt addition at the wet-end on drainage and sheet properties. Nordic Pulp Pap Res J 20:430–435

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Jin H, Okayama T, Ohtani H (2010) Influence of addition of bulking promoter on AKD-sizing performance. J Wood Sci 56:127–132

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. JSA (2004) JIS P 8122 Paper and board - Determination of sizing - Stöckigt method

  6. Japan TAPPI (2000) Pulp and paper testing method no. 48: paper - determination of pore volume distribution by mercury intrusion porosimetry

  7. Jin H, Okayama T (2009) Effects of internal addition of bulking promoter on low-density and porous structure of handsheet (in Japanese). Sen’i Gakkaishi 65:139–145

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Yano T, Ohtani H, Tsuge S, Obokata T (1992) Determination of neutral sizing agents in paper by pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Analyst 117:849–852

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Matsunaga T, Ikada Y (1981) Dispersive component of surface free energy of hydrophilic polymers. J Colloid Interface Sci 84:8–13

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Page DH (1969) A theory for the tensile strength of paper. Tappi 52:674–681

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Cildir H, Howarth P (1972) The effect of re-use on paper strength. Pap Technol 13:333–335

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Yoshinaga N, Okayama T, Oye R, Sawatari A (1993) Effect of various treatments on wettability of pulp fiber (in Japanese). Sen’i Gakkaishi 49:493–499

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Dunstan D, White LR (1986) A capillary pressure method for measurement of contact angles in powders and porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci 111:60–64

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Okayama T, Kimura S, Oye R (1985) Measurement of dynamic wettability of paper surface (in Japanese). Japan Tappi J 39:1157–1163

    Google Scholar 

  15. Okayama T. Ochi T, Oye R (1987) Measurement of dynamic wettability of paper surface. Part 2 (in Japanese). Japan Tappi J 41:515–522

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ochi T, Okayama T, Oye R (1988) Measurement of dynamic wettability of paper surface. Part 3 (in Japanese). Japan Tappi J 42:579–586

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Takayuki Okayama.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jin, H., Okayama, T., Arai, R. et al. Relationship between wettability and sizing degree of paper containing bulking agent. J Wood Sci 57, 34–39 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-010-1136-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-010-1136-z

Key words