The object of this study was to compare the mass concentration of airborne dust during circular sawing of five wood-based materials: solid sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) lumber, tropical hardwood plywood, softwood plywood, particleboard, and medium-density fiberboard. Specimens were sawn at a constant feed per tooth (0.05 mm) using two saw speeds. The mass concentration of airborne dust of diameter 7.07 μm or less (respirable dust) was measured with a light-scattering dust monitor. The mass concentration showed a log-normal distribution, and the geometric means of mass concentration at saw speeds of 2000 and 3000 rpm were 2.33 and 2.89 mg/m3 for tropical hardwood plywood, 1.13 and 2.84 mg/m3 for particleboard, 0.91 and 2.28 mg/m3 for medium-density fiberboard, 1.09 and 1.38 mg/m3 for softwood plywood, and 0.32 and 0.66 mg/m3 for sugi lumber. The mass concentration for all five wood-based materials increased with the revolution speed of the circular saw.