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Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Bow variation in kiln-dried boxed-heart square timber of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) cultivars


To evaluate the bow variation in boxed-heart square timber of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), bows from kiln-dried timber for five sugi cultivars with different longitudinal shrinkage trends were compared for two stem heights. Two general trends were observed, depending on the cultivar: (1) either the bow was larger at the lower than at the upper part of the stem, or (2) the bows at the lower and the upper parts of the stem were similar. In timber that had larger bow values, the gradients of longitudinal shrinkage were large across the radius and along the length of the timber. There was a positive relationship between the bow and longitudinal shrinkage. These results suggest that the bow variation between the timbers was caused by a variation in longitudinal shrinkage, which was affected by the microfibril angle. Furthermore, the bow was inversely proportional to the modulus of elasticity, which suggests that timber with a low modulus of elasticity is susceptible to a large bow due to large longitudinal shrinkage.


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Correspondence to Kana Yamashita.

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Yamashita, K., Hirakawa, Y., Saito, S. et al. Bow variation in kiln-dried boxed-heart square timber of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) cultivars. J Wood Sci 57, 363–370 (2011).

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Key words

  • Cryptomeria japonica
  • Boxed-heart square timber
  • Kiln drying
  • Bow
  • Longitudinal shrinkage