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Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Journal of Wood Science Cover Image
Fig. 1 | Journal of Wood Science

Fig. 1

From: Effect of thermochemical pretreatment on lignin alteration and cell wall microstructural degradation in Eucalyptus globulus: comparison of acid, alkali, and water pretreatments

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of wood structure. a A transverse section of wood stem, showing three different directions, transverse (Tr), radial (R), and tangential (Ta) planes; b wood fibers arranged longitudinally in which transverse and radial faces are shown. The radial section also shows the innermost surface of the cell walls; c multilayered structure of cell walls viewed from the lumen side, illustrating the warty layer (W), the inner (S3), middle (S2), outer (S1) layers of the secondary wall, and the primary wall (P). The different orientations of cellulose microfibrils are shown: the microfibril angle with respect to the fiber axis is 60°–90° in the S3, 5°–30° in the S2, and 60°–80° in the S1 layer of the secondary wall [13]. The primary wall has a multidirectional orientation, and the warty layer has no cellulose microfibrils. In this study, the ultrastructure of the internal surface of fibers exposed in the radial plane was observed by FE-SEM

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