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Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

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Table 1 Antibacterial properties of the ground horse chestnut seed against different species of bacterium

From: Functional evaluation of horse chestnut seed and its application in the production of compounded paper for effective utilization of an untapped resource

Species of bacterium Sample Incubation time (h) Antibacterial properties Bacteria yielded growth valuesd
Viable bacteria (CFUa/mL) Antibacterial activity valuec
Staphylococcus aureus Before incubation 0 1.00 × 105  
Sarcocarp and endodermis 18 3.20 × 104 4.47  
Outer theca 18 NDb  
Only bacteria 18 9.44 × 108 3.98
Escherichia coli Before incubation 0 1.00 × 105  
Sarcocarp and endodermis 18 ND  
Outer theca 18 ND  
Only bacteria 18 6.88 × 108 3.84
Streptococcus mutans Before incubation 0 1.67 × 108  
Sarcocarp and endodermis 48 1.20 × 107 2.73  
Outer theca 48 6.73 × 104 4.97  
Only bacteria 48 6.31 × 1010 1.58
  1. aColony-forming units
  2. bNot Detected
  3. cAntibacterial activity value = (log C t – log C 0) − (log T t – log T 0); where log C t log(average (viable cell count after incubation of bacteria alone for a given period)); log C 0 log(average (viable cell count before incubation)); log T t log(average (viable cell count after incubation of the inoculated samples for a given period)); log T 0 log(average (viable cell count of the samples immediately after inoculation))
  4. dBacteria yielded growth values = log C t – log C 0