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Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

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Table 3 Comparison of nanoindentation properties of windmill palm fiber with other natural fibers

From: Structural, chemical, and multi-scale mechanical characterization of waste windmill palm fiber (Trachycarpus fortunei)

Natural fibersNanoindentation modulus (GPa)Nanoindentation hardness (GPa)
Windmill palm (this study)
Inner layer13.2 ± 1.30.50 ± 0.04
Middle layer8.9 ± 0.80.37 ± 0.04
Outer layer8.5 ± 0.90.36 ± 0.03
Windmill palm [11]7.6 ± 4.00.13 ± 0.02
Date palm [21]14.3–15.80.47–0.53
Crops (cotton stalk, cassava stalk, soybean stalk, rice straw, hemp stalk) [36]12.3–20.80.41–0.85
Hardwood (poplar, iroko, alder birch, Manchurian ash, Asian white birch, red oak, white oak, Mongolian oak, kwila, keranji) [37]16.9–24.60.44–0.56
Softwood (loblolly pine, spruce) [36]14.2–180.34–0.53