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Official Journal of the Japan Wood Research Society

Fig. 2 | Journal of Wood Science

Fig. 2

From: Flexural anisotropy of rift-sawn softwood boards induced by the end-grain orientation

Fig. 2

Procedure for obtaining replica images and measuring tracheid deformation. a Softening of polyethylene film on a glass slide using a heating block. b Duplication of the surface of the specimen by pressing the film on the transverse plane. c Observation and capture of replica images using an optical microscope. d Flexural displacement to observe cell deformation. e To assess the cell deformation in the compression and tension parts in d, we measured the ratio of the tangential to radial diameter (T/R) and the diagonal ratio

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