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Prediction of bending properties for structural glulam using optimized distributions of knot characteristics and laminar MOE


This study established a prediction model for bending properties of glued-laminated timber (glulam) using optimized knot and modulus of elasticity (MOE) distributions of lumber laminate as the main input variables. For this purpose, knot and MOE data were investigated for all pieces of lumber that were prepared for glulam manufacturing, and statistical distributions of knot size, knot number in one lumber, and MOE of each laminate were optimized as distribution functions. These knot and MOE data were used as input variables in the prediction model for bending properties, and were also used in generating virtual glulam using the inverse transform method. Prediction of bending properties for glulam was carried out using the transformed section method, which is partially provided in ASTM D 3737 (Annex A4). Predicted values were compared with those from full-scale four-point bending tests for 60 six-layered glulams with 10 different laminar combinations. Finally, the allowable bending properties of glulam for each specific laminate combination were determined by calculating the fifth percentile of the modulus of rupture and the average modulus of elasticity from virtual test results of more than 1000 virtual glulams. From the results of this study, predicted bending properties for glulam and their distributions could be used for structural design in both allowable stress design and limit state design.


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Correspondence to Jun Jae Lee.

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Lee, J., Park, J., Kim, K. et al. Prediction of bending properties for structural glulam using optimized distributions of knot characteristics and laminar MOE. J Wood Sci 51, 640–647 (2005).

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Key words

  • Bending properties of glulam
  • Knot characteristics
  • Optimized distribution
  • Inverse transform method
  • Transformed section method